UPC-E Barcode - A barcode of the EAN/UPC symbology representing a UCC-12 (UPC-A) identification number in six explicitly encoded digits using zero suppression techniques.
Uniform Code Council - The Uniform Code Council, Inc. (UCC), located in New Jersey and Ohio in the United States, is a membership organisation that jointly manages the EAN•UCC System with EAN International. The UCC also administers the EAN•UCC System in Canada and the United States.
The Universal Product Code (UPC) symbology is used throughout the American grocery industry and has expanded into general retail as well. In it's standard version (UPC-A) the barcode consists of a five digit Manufacturer Number and a five digit Product Number. In addition there is a one digit Number System Identifier at the start of the code. The number system digit denotes the use of one of ten number systems defined by the UCC:
0, 6, 7 | are for regular UPC codes |
2 | is for random weight items, eg. meat and produce, marked in-store. |
3 | is for National Drug Code (NDC) and National Health Related Item Code (NHRIC) |
4 | is for in-store marking of non-food items. |
5 | is for coupon use. |
8 | is for regular UPC codes with variable length company prefixes. |
1, 9 | are not used at present. |
The UPC-E is used on products which would otherwise be too small for a UPC-A barcode symbol. It actually represents a full UPC code and the full code can be re-constructed from the shortened (suppressed) form. Only UPC codes using Number System Identifier 0 (zero) and with sufficient zeros can be shortened (suppressed) to UPC-E codes.
The form and number of zeros in the manufacturer numbers dictates how many product numbers are available.
The rules are as follows:
1. If a manufacturer number ends in 000, 100 or 200, then three digits are allowed for the product code and only the first three digits of the manufacturer number are used. In such a case only the product numbers 00000-00999 could be shortened to UPC-E. The six digits are constructed from the first two digits of the manufacturers number followed by the last three digits of the item number, followed by the third digit of the manufacturers number.
eg. 12100-00745 becomes 127451
2. If a manufacturer number ends in 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 or 900 then two digits are allowed for the product code. The first three digits of the manufacturer number are used and a digit '3' is inserted after the product code. In such a case only the product numbers 00000-00099 could be shortened to UPC-E.
eg. 12500-00081 becomes 125813
3. If a manufacturer number ends in 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 or 90 then one digit is allowed for the product code. The first four digits of the manufacturer number are used and a digit '4' is inserted after the product code. In such a case only the product numbers 00000-00009 could be shortened to UPC-E.
eg. 12390-00007 becomes 123974
4. If the manufacturer number does not end in zero all five digits of the manufacturer number are used followed by one digit of the product code. Only product numbers 00005-00009 may be used. Therefore the manufacturer only has 5 UPC-E codes available.
eg. 12345-00006 becomes 123456
The Human Readable Characters (HRC) for the Number System Character and the Check Digit are printed at a smaller size and separately from the other digits.
The Human Readable Characters (HRC) are positioned at the base of the barcode. A recommended font is the OCR-B.
The UPC-E symbol allows for supplementary codes to be added to the main barcode. These add-ons may be 2 or 5 digits. They do not include a check character and have no bearing on the check digit calculation of the main code. The UPC-E supplementary codes were mainly intended for use on books and periodicals, but may also fulfil an in-house function.
UPC-E + 2 and UPC-E + 5:
The UPC-E symbol also has a check digit which is the last digit of the code and is calculated according to the Modulo 10 algorithm. (See Check Digit Calculation below).
Magnification Factor
The UPC-E symbol is described by the Magnification Factor. The allowable limits being 80% to 200%. For each magnification there is a recommended (or nominal) height. This height is recommended to ensure symbol readability when read by a multi-directional scanner, therefore any reduction in height (or truncation) should only be attempted if absolutely necessary.
UPC-E has a set of allowed tolerances for the quality of the printed code. These measurements relate to the maximum variation in the width of a single bar or space and vary according to magnification factor:
Magnification |
Tolerance µ(micron) |
80% |
0.0014" (35µ) |
85% |
0.0021" (53µ) |
90% |
0.0027" (68µ) |
95% |
0.0034" (86µ) |
100% |
0.0040" (101µ) |
105% |
0.0043" (109µ) |
110% |
0.0046" (116µ) |
115% |
0.0049" (124µ) |
120% |
0.0052" (132µ) |
125% |
0.0055" (139µ) |
130% |
0.0058" (147µ) |
135% |
0.0061" (154µ) |
140% |
0.0064" (162µ) |
150% |
0.0070" (177µ) |
160% |
0.0076" (193µ) |
170% |
0.0082" (208µ) |
180% |
0.0082" (223µ) |
190% |
0.0094" (238µ) |
200% |
0.0101" (256µ) |
As the above table shows, the tolerances allowed reduce rapidly for magnification factors below 100%. For this reason, the final print method should be considered carefully when choosing a magnification factor. For example, some printing presses are too variable to consistently print small (eg. 80%) UPC-E codes.
Check Digit Calculation
In common with most other barcode implementations, UPC-A symbols also have a check digit which is the last number on the right. It is used to check for an error in scanning or data entry. The most common error found with the transcribing or keying of data is that of transposition (reversing the order of two digits). Therefore, the following mathematical formula (Modulo 10) is used:
Modulo-10 algorithm
UPC-A (UCC-12) without check digit: 0 1 2 3 4 5 0
0 0 0 6
(Re-constructed from UPC-E number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6)
Step 1
Starting with the
first number on the right, add all the alternate numbers. Multiply the result by
three.
6 + 0 + 0 + 4 + 2 + 0
= 12 x 3 = 36
Step 2
Starting with the
second number on the right, add all the alternate numbers.
0
+ 0 + 5 + 3 + 1 = 9
Step 3
Add the results of
steps 1 and 2.
Total
= 45
Step 4
The check digit is
the smallest number which when added to the total in Step 3, produces an exact
multiple of ten.
In this example, 45 + 5 = 50, therefore the check digit is 5.
UPC-E zero suppressed number with check digit: 01234565
Note: If the result of Step 3 is an exact multiple of 10, then the check digit is 0 (not 10).
Light Margins
All barcode types require a certain amount of light space (or quiet zone) to the left and right of the code. This enables the scanner to differentiate between the barcode and surrounding graphics. Should the wrong type of graphic image or colour intrude on the light margin, there is a risk that the barcode will not decode, or worse, will decode incorrectly.
Minimum Light Margins (UPC-E):
Left Light
Margin (minimum) |
Maginification Factor |
Right Light
Margin (minimum) |
0.094" (2.377mm) | 80% | 0.073" (1.850mm) |
0.099" (2.526mm) | 85% | 0.074" (1.965mm) |
0.106" (2.675mm) | 90% | 0.082" (2.081mm) |
0.112" (2.824mm) | 95% | 0.087" (2.196mm) |
0.117" (2.972mm) | 100% | 0.091" (2.312mm) |
0.123" (3.121mm) | 105% | 0.096" (2.427mm) |
0.129" (3.269mm) | 110% | 0.101" (2.543mm) |
0.135" (3.417mm) | 115% | 0.105" (2.658mm) |
0.141" (3.566mm) | 120% | 0.109" (2.774mm) |
0.147" (3.715mm) | 125% | 0.114" (2.890mm) |
0.153" (3.863mm) | 130% | 0.119" (3.005mm) |
0.158" (4.012mm) | 135% | 0.123" (3.121mm) |
0.164" (4.161mm) | 140% | 0.128" (3.236mm) |
0.176" (4.458mm) | 150% | 0.137" (3.467mm) |
0.188" (4.775mm) | 160% | 0.146" (3.698mm) |
0.199" (5.052mm) | 170% | 0.155" (3.930mm) |
0.211" (5.350mm) | 180% | 0.164" (4.161mm) |
0.223" (5.647mm) | 190% | 0.173" (4.392mm) |
0.234" (5.944mm) | 200% | 0.182" (4.623mm) |
UCC Customer Service
Uniform
Code Council, Inc.
7887 Washington Village Drive, Suite 300
Dayton, OH
45459, U.S.A.
Telephone +1-937-435-3870
Fax 937-435-7317
E-mail info@uc-council.org
Internet
http://www.uc-council.org
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